Behind the screens look at what happens when typing a URL into a web browser.

The Internet & What Happens When Typing a URL into a Web Browser Writing and Content By Bre Rickner

Holberton School instills that full-stack software engineers understand every aspect of how the stack works including knowledge of how the stack works on top of the internet. So let us dive now into the web world!!!

While researching this topic, I listened to an instructor from admit to it being at least five years, if not more, before figuring out, along the way, how web infrastructure and the internet works.

Now, that being said, I don’t have the years of wisdom and on-the-job training that some of these individuals do. I can tell you that I have spent hours…

Recursion represented in the form of squares.

I’m writing today about a touchy subject in the programming community. I wouldn’t necessarily say it’s a love-hate relationship, because I really don’t hear much love being tossed around for it. I have heard several of my peers agree on one thing though; the harder one tries to dissect what recursion does, the more confused one is about what recursion is actually doing.

This may all sound confusing because it is. The fact is, recursion is just all-around hard to explain, not to mention, nearly impossible to keep track of in a literary sense. So, what better way to describe…

What’s happening under the hood when a user types ls -l into the shell or a command-line interpreter??

Trying to eliminate some of the blurred lines that come with typing commands into the shell.

Before we dive in, here are some need-to-knows to help you follow along. I will be operating on a UNIX/UNIX-like operating system. The shell being referenced is the Bourne Again Shell (BASH). It may also be referred to as sh or /bin/sh.

The shell is an executable program(/bin/sh), utilized by a user, to interact with and/or manipulate a computer’s operating system. The shell must be invoked, via a terminal, which is a program that opens a window to allow user or file input, for the system to execute.

If it’s determined, that standard input is connected to the terminal (via…

Why Use A “C” Library

The question that software engineers ask the most often, is “why?”. Why do we do the things we do? Why do this? Why do that? Which leads me to ask this next question; why use “C” libraries? What’s the real benefit?

The answer to that question begins with; efficiency. When we find ourselves often creating programs that utilize the same few functions, wouldn’t it be in our best interest to organize these functions collectively in one spot, where we can quickly resource them as they are needed? For this purpose, we queue the “C” libraries!

After reading this, you should be able to understand the process it takes to compile a C program using gcc as your compiler!

What is gcc exactly? GCC is a component of the “GNU toolchain” for developing and writing operating systems. More specifically, GCC stands for “GNU Compiler Collection”.

There are 4 main components in the compiler; a preprocessor, a compiler, an assembler and a linker.


First step writing any C program. It is our source code and the file with extension of .c. (e.g. main.c). Preprocessor generates an intermediate file with assembly code.


Converts .c file into assembly code/language

If you’re someone who came here wanting to learn about a shortcut in Linux a little bit more about links on Linux, great! Let me try to break things down a little! Let’s start by thinking of our links in UNIX, as a “pointer” to a file or directory. Creating a link is like creating a shortcut. The shortcut points us directly to the file/directory we want to access.

More specifically, there are TWO types of links that we can use!


SYMBOLIC LINKS (also known as ‘soft’ links)

The main difference in these two links is the action…

If you came here looking for tips on how to find seashell on the seashore, well… you’re probably going to be pretty disappointed. If you came here looking for a way to navigate to your C files in your shell, then you’re going to have a great time!

The person who will benefit most from the information in this post will be a novice, to intermediate novice, user on a UNIX-like system, like Linux! It is meant to explain to someone who is very new to using a CMI like shell. So, if that’s you, come right in!

So, first…

Bre Rickner

Full-Stack Software Engineering Student at Holberton School

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